A detailed scientific description of a complete ancient hominin foot published in Nature Communications this past August 2015 finds more similarities than differences between our modern feet and this species’ ancient skeletal foot type. Although still undated, this species, being called Homo naledi, discovered only last year in South Africa by Lee R. Berger Ph.d and team, had a foot type well adapted for bipedal walking. Many other species also demonstrate such adaptations. But, H. naledi’s small skull and other skeletal morphologies would indicate that this species was still quite ancient and perhaps modern feet have been around much longer than other features we consider ‘human’, such as a large brain.
Two important differences in the H. naledi foot from our own Homo sapien foot inlcude a more flattened heel bone, called the calcaneus and more curved small toe bones, called the phalanges. The calcaneal change would indicate a generally flatter foot type than the average human foot which has at least some arch. And the curved toes would indicate that H. naledi engaged in some kind of activity that benefitted from grasping of toes.
Anthropologists have known that ancestral humans have walked on two feet even dating back 3.6 million years to Austrolapithicenes in Laetoli, Tanzania. But, evolution is not specifically linear. The newly discovered skeletal remains give us a unique insight into how a species, maybe an ancestor, maybe not, looked-at least how their skeleton looked. And the paper’s authors state that these skeletal foot remains are “distinct” from members of Homo erectus and Homo habilis, other ancient hominins, writing that, “The foot of H. naledi thus expands the range of locomotor diversity in both the hominin lineage and the genus Homo.”
Finding more ancient human-like remains usually raises more questions than provides answers in our desperate attempt to understand from where we came. But one fact remains clear. Our ability to walk on our own two feet is far, far from uniquely human as even our small brained cousins were fully bipedal, (and, most certainly, shoe-less as well).